Washington State Veterinary Medical Association



Severe Treponeme-associated Bacterial Hoof Disease in Southwest Washington Elk

Because the mid-1990’s sporadic reviews happen to be caused by southwest Washington of free-varying elk (Cervus elaphus) with lameness and seriously deformed or missing hooves. These reviews significantly elevated throughout the late winter and springtime of 2008. The geographic distribution of reviews has ongoing to grow since that time, and also at this time around is believed to encompass a core section of roughly 10, 500 km2 (4Thousand mi2).

A diagnostic analysis to look for the cause was started in '09. Radiography, routine bacteriology, virology, serology, and trace mineral analyses didn't identify any significant underlying bone and joint or systemic disease (Han and Mansfield, 2014). Subsequent histopathology and silver discoloration of lesions from affected hooves shown the existence of deeply invasive spirochetes supported by significant inflammation. PCR and DNA sequencing carried out through the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, the USDA National Animal Disease Center (NADC), and also the College of Liverpool IHC carried out through the California Animal Health insurance and Food Safety Laboratory and culture and isolation carried out through the NADC and also the College of Liverpool all recognized these spirochetes as Treponema spp. considered to be highly connected with two infectious hoof illnesses in domestic creatures: bovine digital dermatitis (DD) of cattle (Evans et al., 2009) and contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) of sheep (Sayers, 2009).

Digital dermatitis (DD) become a substantial disease of cattle within the mid-the nineteen nineties. Based on a 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System survey, DD was discovered to be the responsible for lameness in dairy cows countrywide, with 70% of dairy procedures confirming cases with DD comprising 50% of lameness cases in cows within study herds (, 2009). Contagious ovine digital dermatitis isn't generally reported in america, but has lately become a significant reason for lameness in sheep within the Uk (Wassink et al., 2003). WhileTreponema spp. are consistently connected with DD lesions, particularly in later stages, DD is regarded as a polybacterial disease. It's thought that unknown bacteria or microbe consortia (Krull et al., 2014), in addition to favorable environment the weather is needed to initiate the condition.


Proceedings of the conference of representatives of medical, dental, pharmaceutical, and veterinary associations and other scientific associations and agencies with the surgeon general of the United States Public health service held at Washington, D. C., August 12, 1930
Book (U.S. Govt. print. off.)


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